# Writing VASP Tests#

## Considerations#

Atomate2 includes tools to help write tests for VASP workflows. The primary considerations with the atomate2 testing environment are listed below.

### Pseudopotentials#

We cannot include any POTCAR files with atomate2 as they are copyrighted material.

To overcome this, the reference test data includes POTCAR.spec files that only contain the pseudopotential name and not the data.

### File sizes#

The files produced by VASP are generally large and would overwhelm the size of the atomate2 repository if not managed carefully. For example, CHGCAR files can easily be ten’s of megabytes which can quickly add up.

To overcome this, we only include essential VASP output files in the atomate2 test folder. For example, CHGCAR, LOCPOT, and other density information is not needed in most instances. One exception is non-self-consistent band structures where the charge density must be copied from a static calculation. Any other example is in the amset workflow, where the WAVECAR is needed to extract the wavefunction coefficients.

### VASP execution#

We cannot run VASP on the testing server due to the computational expense. Furthermore, different versions/compilations of VASP may yield slightly different total energies which are not important for our tests – we only test that (i) inputs are written correctly, (ii) outputs are parsed correctly, and (iii) jobs are connected together properly.

This is achieved by “mocking” VASP execution. Instead of running VASP, we copy reference output files into the current directory and then proceed with running the workflow.

## The atomate2 dev command#

Atomate2 provides the atm dev vasp-test-data command that automatically prepares VASP data for use in atomate2 tests. It does this by:

• Copying VASP inputs and outputs into the correct directory structure.

• Converting POTCAR files to POTCAR.spec files.

• Removing large and unnecessary VASP files.

• Providing a template unit test that is configured for the specific workflow.

There are four stages to generating the test data:

## 1. Run the VASP workflow to generate reference outputs#

Ensure that you are on a machine that can run VASP. Create a python file that contains the code to run your workflow. We recommend adjusting the VASP settings so that the files generated are not too large and can be run quickly. E.g., by reducing the k-point mesh density or energy cutoff.

The script should also contain some additional code that will allow atm dev vasp-test-data to process the reference data. Below we give an example used to generate the elastic constant workflow test data.

from atomate2.vasp.flows.elastic import ElasticMaker
from atomate2.vasp.powerups import update_user_kpoints_settings
from pymatgen.core import Structure
from jobflow import run_locally, JobStore
from maggma.stores.mongolike import MemoryStore
from monty.serialization import dumpfn

# silicon structure
si_structure = Structure(
lattice=[
[3.348898, 0.0, 1.933487],
[1.116299, 3.157372, 1.933487],
[0.0, 0.0, 3.866975],
],
species=["Si", "Si"],
coords=[[0.25, 0.25, 0.25], [0, 0, 0]],
)

# generate the flow and reduce the k-point mesh for the relaxation jobs
flow = ElasticMaker().make(si_structure)
flow = update_user_kpoints_settings(flow, {"grid_density": 100}, name_filter="relax")

# run the workflow using a custom store so that we can easily compile test data
store = JobStore(MemoryStore(), additional_stores={"data": MemoryStore()})
run_locally(flow, store=store, create_folders=True)

# dump all of the job outputs to the outputs.json file in the current directory
outputs = list(store.query(load=True))
dumpfn(outputs, "outputs.json")


You should edit the part where the flow is generated but leave the rest of the code the same. You should now run the script in a folder and generate the outputs.json file.

## 2. Compile the test data#

The next stage is to compile the calculation data into the correct format. For each VASP job in the workflow, there should be a folder with the name of the job that contains:

• A folder called “inputs” with the INCAR, POTCAR.spec, POSCAR, and KPOINTS files. Note that the KPOINTS file is optional and won’t be present if KSPACING is set in the INCAR.

• A folder called “outputs” with the vasprun.xml, OUTCAR, json log files and any other output files needed for the workflow to run (e.g., CHGCAR file for band structure workflows).

To generate this folder run the following command in the folder containing the outputs.json file.

atm dev vasp-test-data WF_NAME


You should change WF_NAME to be a name for the workflow. Note, WF_NAME should not contain spaces or punctuation. For example, the elastic constant workflow test data was genenerated using atm dev vasp-test-data Si_elastic.

This will generate a folder in the current directory called “WF_NAME” that contains the folders in the correct format.

Note

By default, the script will only copy POTCAR, POSCAR, CONTCAR, KPOINTS, INCAR, vasprun.xml, OUTCAR and json files to the WF_NAME folder. If additional files are needed for specific steps of the workflow you need to copy them in manually. A mapping from jobflow calculation folder to job folder in WF_NAME is given at the to of the atm dev vasp-test-data script output. E.g., it will look something like

A mapping from the original job folders to the formatted folders is:
/Users/alex/atomate2/job_2021-11-08-17-24-31-799852-28250  ->  Si_elastic/tight_relax_1
/Users/alex/atomate2/job_2021-11-08-17-25-14-718901-28808  ->  Si_elastic/tight_relax_2
/Users/alex/atomate2/job_2021-11-08-17-25-38-237201-15341  ->  Si_elastic/elastic_relax_6_6
/Users/alex/atomate2/job_2021-11-08-17-26-12-877896-35631  ->  Si_elastic/elastic_relax_5_6
/Users/alex/atomate2/job_2021-11-08-17-26-47-215837-12883  ->  Si_elastic/elastic_relax_4_6
/Users/alex/atomate2/job_2021-11-08-17-27-11-602937-71135  ->  Si_elastic/elastic_relax_3_6
/Users/alex/atomate2/job_2021-11-08-17-27-45-722573-61724  ->  Si_elastic/elastic_relax_2_6
/Users/alex/atomate2/job_2021-11-08-17-28-10-286137-10861  ->  Si_elastic/elastic_relax_1_6


Warning

For the script to run successfully, every job in your workflow must have a unique name. For example, there cannot be two calculations called “relax”. Instead you should ensure they are named something like “relax 1” and “relax 2”.

## 3. Copy the test data folder into atomate2#

You can now copy the WF_NAME folder into the atomate2 test files. VASP test files live in atomate2/tests/test_data/vasp. Ensure that a workflow with that name doesn’t already exist in the folder.

## 4. Write the test#

The atm dev vasp-test-data also generates an example test that is configured to use the test data we just generated.

The most important part is the section that mocks VASP and configures which checks to perform on the input files. For the elastic constant workflow, it looks something like this:

# mapping from job name to directory containing test files
ref_paths = {
"elastic relax 1/6": "Si_elastic/elastic_relax_1_6",
"elastic relax 2/6": "Si_elastic/elastic_relax_2_6",
"elastic relax 3/6": "Si_elastic/elastic_relax_3_6",
"elastic relax 4/6": "Si_elastic/elastic_relax_4_6",
"elastic relax 5/6": "Si_elastic/elastic_relax_5_6",
"elastic relax 6/6": "Si_elastic/elastic_relax_6_6",
"tight relax 1": "Si_elastic/tight_relax_1",
"tight relax 2": "Si_elastic/tight_relax_2",
}

# settings passed to fake_run_vasp; adjust these to check for certain INCAR settings
fake_run_vasp_kwargs = {
"elastic relax 1/6": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"elastic relax 2/6": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"elastic relax 3/6": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"elastic relax 4/6": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"elastic relax 5/6": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"elastic relax 6/6": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"tight relax 1": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"tight relax 2": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
}

# automatically use fake VASP and write POTCAR.spec during the test
mock_vasp(ref_paths, fake_run_vasp_kwargs)


The ref_paths variable contains the mapping from job name to test folder. The fake_run_vasp_kwargs contains the settings that will get passed to the fake_run_vasp function in the atomate2/tests/vasp/conftest.py file. This variable controls which INCAR settings are checked in the reference INCAR and the INCAR generated by atomate2 during the test. You should update these settings to include the important parameters for the jobs in your workflow. I.e., if it is a relaxation then the value of NSW is important.

Finally, the call too mock_vasp configures the test such that:

1. POTCAR files will be written as POTCAR.spec files.

2. The fake_run_vasp function will be called instead of the run_vasp function. fake_run_vasp is responsible for checking the correct inputs are written (by comparing against the files in the “inputs” folder) and copying in the reference files from the “outputs” folder for each job.

After mock_vasp is called, you should edit the generate and run the workflow. Ensure that the workflow is generated in exactly the same was as in step 1. E.g., if you altered the k-point density when generating the test data, you must also alter the k-point density during the test.

Finally, you should add assert statements to validate the workflow outputs. As an example, the full elastic workflow test is reproduced below.

def test_elastic(mock_vasp, clean_dir):
import numpy as np
from jobflow import run_locally

from atomate2.common.schemas.elastic import ElasticDocument
from atomate2.vasp.flows.elastic import ElasticMaker
from atomate2.vasp.powerups import update_user_kpoints_settings

# mapping from job name to directory containing test files
ref_paths = {
"elastic relax 1/6": "Si_elastic/elastic_relax_1_6",
"elastic relax 2/6": "Si_elastic/elastic_relax_2_6",
"elastic relax 3/6": "Si_elastic/elastic_relax_3_6",
"elastic relax 4/6": "Si_elastic/elastic_relax_4_6",
"elastic relax 5/6": "Si_elastic/elastic_relax_5_6",
"elastic relax 6/6": "Si_elastic/elastic_relax_6_6",
"tight relax 1": "Si_elastic/tight_relax_1",
"tight relax 2": "Si_elastic/tight_relax_2",
}

# settings passed to fake_run_vasp; adjust these to check for certain INCAR settings
fake_run_vasp_kwargs = {
"elastic relax 1/6": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"elastic relax 2/6": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"elastic relax 3/6": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"elastic relax 4/6": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"elastic relax 5/6": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"elastic relax 6/6": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"tight relax 1": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
"tight relax 2": {"incar_settings": ["NSW", "ISMEAR"]},
}

# automatically use fake VASP and write POTCAR.spec during the test
mock_vasp(ref_paths, fake_run_vasp_kwargs)

# generate flow
si_structure = Structure(
lattice=[[0, 2.73, 2.73], [2.73, 0, 2.73], [2.73, 2.73, 0]],
species=["Si", "Si"],
coords=[[0, 0, 0], [0.25, 0.25, 0.25]],
)

# generate the flow and reduce the k-point mesh for the relaxation jobs
flow = ElasticMaker().make(si_structure)
flow = update_user_kpoints_settings(
flow, {"grid_density": 100}, name_filter="relax"
)

# run the flow and ensure that it finished running successfully
responses = run_locally(flow, create_folders=True, ensure_success=True)

# validate workflow outputs
elastic_output = responses[flow.jobs[-1].uuid][1].output
assert isinstance(elastic_output, ElasticDocument)
assert np.allclose(
elastic_output.elastic_tensor.ieee_format,
[
[155.7923, 54.8871, 54.8871, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0],
[54.8871, 155.7923, 54.8871, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0],
[54.8871, 54.8871, 155.7923, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0],
[0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 31.5356, 0.0, 0.0],
[0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 31.5356, 0.0],
[0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 31.5356],
],
atol=1e-3,
)


Note that the mock_vasp and clean_dir arguments to the test function are pytest fixtures and are essential for the test to run successfully.

Warning

For mock_vasp to work correctly, all imports needed for the test must be imported in the test function itself (rather than at the top of the file).